Spitzbergen (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) is a part of Norway by international treaty. All signatories to the treaty have a right to settle there and do business there, and the territory is demilitarized.
A lot has been written about Svalbard, here are links to lists of books available from Amazon - UK and US.
The correct term for the territory is Svalbard (from Norse, meaning "The land with the cold coasts") while Spitzbergen/Spitsbergen is the name of the largest island.
There are no natives in Svalbard, only Norwegian and Russian mining settlements and hunters/trappers. The major Norwegian settlements are no longer primarily mining towns but research sites, even in Longyearbyen - the largest Norwegian settlement - science and research is gradually taking over the place of mining in importance to the local community. The four Norwegian Universities has established a college there, UNIS.
Norsk Polarinstitutt conducts a lot of research on Svalbard, and has lots of information on their server.
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